On the 90 th anniversary of the Kronstadt uprising

In March 2011 marks 90 years since the Kronstadt uprising - one of the performances of the working masses in their age-old struggle for freedom, autonomy, equality and solidarity. Memory of the heroes who died at the hands of tyrants, and dedicate the publication of excerpts from the work of an anarchist Alexander Berkman rebellious Kronstadt. Kronstadt movement was spontaneous, unprepared and peaceful. The fact that it ended the armed conflict, vylivshimsya a bloody tragedy, is guilty only hellish tyranny "communist" dictatorship. Although Kronstadt Bolsheviks understood the general nature, he still believed in the possibility of a peaceful solution.He believed that the "communist" government available intelligence ascribed to him a certain sense of justice and freedom. Experience Kronstadt again demonstrated that the state - under any name or in any form - is always a mortal enemy of freedom and self-determination.

State heartless and unprincipled. It has only one goal: to ensure and maintain his own power at any price. Such is the political lesson of Kronstadt.

But there is another lesson for any uprising - Strategic.The success of the rebellion is defined by its determination, energy and offensive. On the side of the insurgents - a mass feeling. It is so strong, the higher the wave of rebellion. We can not allow it calmed down, faded and returned to colorless everyday life. On the other hand, any insurrection has a strong opponent of the state machine. The Government can concentrate in their hands all the sources of supply and transport routes.

Do not give him time to use his power.The uprising must be powerful, must apply the unexpected and decisive blow. It should not be local, because it means stagnation. It should grow and develop. Limiting ourselves to one area, spending or taking a wait and see policy on the defensive, the revolt inevitably doomed to failure.

In this regard, Kronstadt repeated disastrous strategic mistakes of the Paris Commune. Communards did not listen to those who favored an immediate attack on Versailles, while the government of Thiers remained disorganized.They have not suffered a revolution in the countryside. Neither the workers of Paris in 1871, nor the Kronstadt sailors did not try to eliminate the government. Communards demanded a certain republican liberty, and when the government tried to disarm them, expelled ministers Thiers in Paris, enter the desired freedom and prepared to protect them - and nothing more.

Kronstadt, too, demanded only free elections to the Soviets. After the arrest of several commissioners sailors went to defend against attack.Kronstadt refused to follow the advice of military experts and quickly seize Oranienbaum. This fortress was vital military importance, in addition, there were 50 thousand tons of grain, belonging to Kronstadt. The landing was possible because the Bolsheviks were stunned, and they have not had time to harden.

But the sailors did not want to take the offensive and psychologically favorable moment was lost. A few days later, when the words and deeds of Kronstadt Bolshevik government persuaded that the fight is a life and death, it was too late to correct the error.

Likewise was the Paris Commune.When the logic imposed by her struggle has proved the need to eliminate the regime of Thiers, not only in their own city, but throughout the country, it was too late. The Paris Commune and the Kronstadt uprising proved addiction to passive defensive tactics.

Kronstadt fell. The movement for voluntary councils have been flooded in the blood, while the Bolshevik government signed a compromise with European capitalists, Rigas signed a contract giving the mercy of Poland's 12 million people, and helped the Turkish imperialism to crush the Caucasian republic.But the "triumph" of the Bolsheviks over Kronstadt contained a defeat Bolshevism. He revealed the true nature of the "communist" dictatorship.

"Communists" have proven their ability to donate communism, almost go to any compromise with the world capitalism, but rejected the just demands of its own people - demands which were reflected in the October slogans of the Bolsheviks themselves: direct and secret elections to the Council in accordance with the Constitution of the RSFSR, freedom speech and press for the revolutionary parties.

Kronstadt was far from being able to speak for a Constituent Assembly or the requirements of free trade, which could be detected in Petrograd.The sailors were revolutionaries in spirit and in fact, they were staunch supporters of the Soviet system, but the true opponents of the dictatorship of any political party.

During the Kronstadt rebellion took place in Moscow 10-th Congress of the Communist Party.At this congress as a result of the Kronstadt events and an equally menacing mood of the people in other parts of Russia and Siberia, has changed the entire Bolshevik economic policies. Bolsheviks chose to abandon their political principles, cancel the schedule of, to introduce freedom of trade, to grant concessions to the capitalists, to renounce communism - communism, which struggled for the October Revolution had been shed so much blood, and the country suffered the destruction and despair - whatever, just to prevent the freely elected Soviets.

Can we then still wonder to what the ultimate goal sought Bolsheviks? What they wanted: the triumph of communist ideals, or to government authorities?

Kronstadt is of great historical significance.He sounded the death knell of Bolshevism with its Party dictatorship, centralization of the damned, the Cheka terror and bureaucratic caste. He smote the "communist" autocracy in the heart. Reasonable and honest thinkers in Europe and America, he gave the impetus for a critical review of Bolshevik theory and practice.He destroyed the Bolshevik fable that "communist" state - a "government of workers and peasants."

He proved that the "communist" dictatorship of the Party and the Russian Revolution oppose each other, contradict each other, are incompatible. He showed the Bolshevik regime as undisguised tyranny, as the reaction showed that the most powerful and dangerous counter-revolution is itself "communist" state.

Kronstadt fell.But he fell, having won its idealism and moral purity, its nobility and greater humanity. Kronstadt was fine. He rightly proud of the fact that not shed blood on their territory of their enemies, "the communists". He did not carry out executions. Illiterate sailors with their rough language and manners were too precious to copy the Bolshevik vengeance: they would not shoot even hated commissioners.

Kronstadt was the first popular, and entirely independent attempt of liberation from the yoke of the state "socialism". Attempt made directly by the people, workers, soldiers and sailors. It was the first step toward the third revolution, which is inevitable and, hopefully, will bring long-suffering Russian freedom and peace.

Alexander Berkman (1923)

("Direct Action", 1996. № 6)

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